Organic fluorochemicals have multitudes of applications and their molecular structures are very diverse. Many also come with their own naming nomenclature, for example HFO-1223yf, PFPE, CTFE, etc. To the uninitiated chemist, the complexity of this field can be daunting. Therefore, Fluoryx Labs has created a graphic illustrating several reaction pathways used to create the more common small molecule fluorochemicals.
Starting from the left side, all fluorochemical syntheses begin with the same basic material, Fluorspar (CaF2) which is mined in countries such as the USA, China, Mexico, and South Africa. Fluorspar is converted to hydrofluoric acid (HF) by reaction with sulfuric acid. From there, many pathways branch off leading to simple molecules (like refrigerants) to more complex molecules (like perfluoropolyethers, fluoromonomers, solvents, fluorinated surfactants, etc.). Some of these chemicals (e.g., hydrofluoric acid) and reactions (e.g., the synthesis of tetrafluoroethylene or TFE) are dangerous and proper precautions must be observed.